Table of contents
- The modern square root symbol is first used.
- Poland is the largest state in Europe and has its Polish Golden Age.
- Portugal conquers the Sultanate of Malacca. Start of European colonisation in South-East Asia. (1511)
- Castile invades the kingdom of Navarre (1512).
- The Ottoman Empire reaches its peak during the reign of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (reigned 1520-1566). Troops of the Ottoman Empire lay siege upon Vienna, but fail to conquer the city (1529)
- European explorers explore the New World. Spain conquers the Aztec Empire in Central America (1521) and the Incan Empire in South America (1533), resulting in the destruction of the native civilizations of Mesoamerica and the Andes. Vast increase in amount of gold in circulation in Europe. The horse introduced to the Americas.
- First circumnavigation of the globe by a ship of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition. Only one ship survived the journey, under the command of the Basque captain Sebastian Elkano (1522).
- Protestant reform of the Christian church in several countries in Northern Europe.
- In the Diet of Speyer, a group of princes and imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire sign a protestation against the Edict of Worms. This marks their support of Lutheranism (1529).
- Poland choose religious tolerance.
- Polish writers are eager to discuss religious differences. They print their works in the Polish language for the first time.
- King Henry VIII of England breaks with Roman Catholic Church and forms Church of England (1533)
- French Wars of Religion between Catholics and Huguenots in France (1562 - 1598).
- Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun (1543)
- The Council of Trent (1545 - 1563), one of the ecumenical councils of the Catholic Church, defined a large number of new dogmas in response to the Protestant Reformation.
- In the Dutch revolt of 1568-1648, a small nation gained independence from the superpower of the day (Spain).
- Poland and Lithuania form the Commonwealth (1569 - 1795)
- Gregorian Calendar adopted by Catholic countries (1582)
- After the Fall of Antwerp (1585), many of its merchants fled to Amsterdam
- Michelangelo Buonarroti, Italian painter and sculptor (1475 - 1564).
- Thomas More, English politician and author (1478 - 1535).
- Martin Luther, German religious reformer (1483 - 1546).
- Hernán Cortés, Spanish Conquistador (1485 - 1547).
- King Henry VIII of England, founder of Anglicanism (1491 - 1547).
- King Francis I of France, considered the first Renaissance monarch of his Kingdom (1494 - 1547).
- Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Conqueror and legal reformer (1494 - 1566).
- Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and the first to reign as King of Spain. Involved in almost constant conflict with France and the Ottoman Empire while promoting the Spanish colonization of the Americas (1500 - 1558).
- King Philip II of Spain, self-proclaimed leader of Counter-Reformation (1527 - 1598).
- Queen Elizabeth I of England, central figure of the Elizabethan era (1533 - 1603).
- Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish author (1547 - 1616).
- King Henry IV of France and Navarre, ended the French Wars of Religion and reunited the kingdom under his command (1553 - 1610).
- William Shakespeare, English author (1564 - 1616).
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Introduction of the spinning wheel revolutionizes textile production.
- New world crops such as maize corn, potatoes, chocolate, and tomatoes, become known to Europeans.